Another excerpt reportedly states that the Central Intelligence Agency has "medium-to-high confidence" that Prince Mohammed "personally targeted" Khashoggi and "probably ordered his death".
Mrs May also used the meeting to urge the prince to end the war in Yemen.
President Erdogan has said the killing was ordered by the highest level of Saudi leadership but probably not by King Salman, putting the spotlight instead on the Crown Prince.
Trudeau has largely steered clear of bin Salman during his visit after formally condemning the killing earlier this month.
Algeria is one of the few Arab countries which has good relations with Saudi Arabia as well as its arch rival Iran.
The pledge was made during Ramaphosa's state visit to Saudi Arabia, where he met with Bin Salman. It's inner workings are opaque, though, so outside observers have to look for signals or past experiences to gauge how Crown Prince Mohammed is faring in the wake of Khashoggi's death.
During an informal conversation on the sidelines of the summit, French President Emmanuel Macron was overheard admonishing Mohammed, saying he "never listened", while the crown prince tried to assure him that "it's OK".
"He is responsible for the death of a large number of children and civilians in Yemen, the jailing of many Saudi citizens who did not commit a crime, and lastly, the crime against Jamal Khashoggi", he said.
However, they failed to provide any further details.
The Saudi prince is unlikely to face protests over the murder like he did in Tunisia, as demonstrations are banned in Algiers.
The UAE was the crown prince's first stop.
The CIA says al-Qahtani was in direct communication with the team's leader in Istanbul - in the hours before and after the journalist was murdered.
The prince told world leaders that "unless the crime is proven, you can not blame Saudi Arabia", Erdogan quoted him as saying.
Khashoggi was killed on October 2 after entering the Saudi consulate in Istanbul to obtain marriage documents for his upcoming wedding. In the video, Macron can be seen looking the crown prince in the eye while bin Salman nods his head and, at times, smiles.
Freeman says that in the past, the royal family operated by consensus so it could unite and remove an heir to the throne.
Secretary General of the leftist Workers' Party Louisa Hanoun called Prince Mohammed's visit a "provocation".
Speaking in Buenos Aires, Putin said on Saturday that he had no concrete figures on possible output cuts but that Russian Federation would continue contributing to reducing global output.