A posting on the Syrian presidency's Facebook page said the two leaders consulted on various issues of mutual interest and the latest political and military developments in Syria.
Assad previously visited Russia and met with Putin in November 2017 and October 2015, and Putin travelled to the Russian air base in Syria last December to announce a scale-back of the Russian military presence there.
Putin told Assad that in the light of success of the Syrian army foreign forces should be withdrawn from the war-torn country.
"The next task, of course, is the economic recovery and humanitarian aid for those people in a hard situation", Putin added.
Russian Federation has been involved in Syria's civil war since September 2015.
According to a Kremlin statement, Mr Assad said "stability is improving" in Syria, "opening the door to the political process we started some time ago".
"We know that will not be easy since there are countries which do not want stability to return to Syria".
"And of course now, after these military successes, additional conditions have doubtless been created for the renewal of a fully-fledged political process". "However, together with you and our other partners and friends, we will move firmly forward with the peace process", Assad added.
But rebel factions still control large parts of northwestern and southwestern Syria, while a Kurdish-led alliance backed by the United States holds most of the northeast.
Syria's conflict began with mass protests against the Assad family's decades-long rule.
Putin and Assad met on the eve of a meeting in Sochi between Putin and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the first face-to-face talk of the year between the veteran leaders.